Ali ibn Abi Talib was a man who underwent severe hatred, from his name being cursed in the Pulpit of the messenger of Allah [saw] to facing three major wars from the muslims themselves in his short four years as Caliph.
Ali ibn Abi Talib said: “Two persons [groups] are doomed concerning me; the devoted extremist exalting me to what I am not, and the spiteful hater bearing malice towards me and slandering me)”
Reference: Al-Musnad, hadith no. 1376 and also hadith no. 1377 with a slight variation in its text and a different chain of authority (Ahmad Shakir).
Ummayad enmity towards Ali ibn Abi Talib
Indeed, it is a historical fact during the time of the Banu Ummayah, particular during the times of Muawiyah and the first major Ummayad Caliphs, the cursing of Ali ibn Abi Talib on the pulpits during the Friday prayer was common place. This itself is evidence of the hatred there was for Ali ibn abi Talib.
“I came to Um Salama and she said to me: “How come Allah’s Messenger is being cursed among you?’. I replied: “We seek refuge from allah or praise Allah or some similar words. She said: “I heard Allah’s Messenger [saw] saying , ‘whoever curses Ali, has cursed me’”
Reference: Musnad Ahmad, Vol 6, Page 323 Declared Sahih by Shaykh Shoib Al-Arnaut]
“The statement of M’uawiyah to S’ad bin Abi Waqqas “What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab” indicates that the first generation of Bani Ummaya would abuse and belittle Ali.
Reference : Qurtubi in his famed work Al-Mufhem, Volume 20, page 25, whilst commenting on the tradition under discussion
“ “When Marwan was a governor of Mu’awiya in Madina, he would curse Ali every Friday from the pulpit (Minbar). Hasan bin Ali then said to him: “Allah then cursed your father by the tongue of His messenger when you were in his ‘Sulub’ (loins) and has said that the curse of Allah be upon Hakam and his progeny.”
Reference: Imam Ibn Kathir, in his Badaya wa Al Nahayah writes [Volume 8, Page 235]
The Prophet (ﷺ) sent `Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus (of the booty) and I hated `Ali, and `Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave-girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. `Ali)?” When we reached the Prophet (ﷺ) I mentioned that to him. He said, “O Buraida! Do you hate `Ali?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumlus.”
Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 4350, Book 64, Hadith 377/Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 637 ENG
And from Tarikh At Tabari: “Ali b. `Abdallah b. `Abbas b. `Abd al-Muttalib. His mother was Zur’ah bt. Mishrah b. Ma`di-Karib b. Wali’ah b. Shurahbil b. Mu`awiyah b. Hujr al-Qird b. al-Harith al-Walladah b. `Amr b. Mu`awiyah b. al-Harith b. Mu`awiyah b. Thawr b. Muratti’ b. Thawr, that is, Kindah. His kunyah was Abu Muhammad. It was reported that he was born the night `Ali b. Abi Talib, the Commander of the Faithful, was killed, in Ramadan 40/February 661. He therefore was given both the name and the kunyah of [`Ali b. Abi Talib], that is, Abu al-Hasan. `Abd al-Malik b. Marwan said to him: “By God, I shall not tolerate it that you would use both the name and the kunyah [of `Ali b. Abi Talib].” So he changed his kunyah and made it Abu Muhammad.”
Here is what it states in the foot-notes: l-Tabari, Ta’rikh, II, 1592. The matter of genealogy and family relations within the Quraysh was of crucial importance in Umayyad propaganda, which is reflected in the stance taken by `Abd al-Malik; see Sharon, “The Umayyads.
Reference l-Tabari, Ta’rikh, II, 1592.
The hatred of Aisha, the mother of the believers towards Ali ibn Abi Talib
When Ubaidullah Ibn Utbah mentioned to Ibn Abbas that Aisha said “In his death-illness the Prophet was brought to (Aisha’s) house while his shoulders were being supported by Fadhl Ibn Abbas and another person”, then Abdullah Ibn Abbas said: “Do you know who this ‘other man’ was?” Ibn Utbah replied: “No.” Then Ibn Abbas said: “He was Ali Ibn Abi Talib, but she is averse to name him in a good context.”
Reference: Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Volume 6 page 228 Tradition 25956 The margin writer of Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal namely Shaykh Shoib al-Arnaut stated: “The chain is Sahih according to the standards of the two Sheiks (Bukhari & Muslim)”
Ubaidullah bin ‘Abdullah told me that ‘Aisha had said, “When the Prophet became sick and his condition became serious, he requested his wives to allow him to be treated in my house, and they allowed him. He came out leaning on two men while his feet were dragging on the ground. He was walking between Al-’Abbas and another man.” ‘Ubaidullah said, “When I informed Ibn ‘Abbas of what ‘Aisha had said, he asked me whether I knew who was the second man whom ‘Aisha had not named. I replied in the negative. He said, ‘He was ‘Ali bin Abi Talib.”
Reference: Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3 hadith 761:
It is therefore no surprise to find that in the short four years Ali ibn Abi Talib was the caliph, he faced a rebellion and war with Aisha, the mother of the believers, as well as two wars in Jamal and Siffin with M’uawiyah ibn Abi Sufiyan.
While many accepted the Prophet [saw], owing to the fact the fathers of so many died in battle fields by the sword of Ali , and that he enjoyed a very high rank and status, there was hatred, jealousy, and envy towards him. Furthermore, tribal rivalries may not have accepted power remaining in the hands of the Banu Hashim, and would have seen this as favouritism on part of the Prophet [saw].
By first saying ‘whomsoever Mawla i am” what the Messenger of Allah [saw] wanted to make clear was that whoever had accepted him as an authority over them, should now consider Ali ibn Abi Talib just as they consider him an authority. One can not oppose Ali ibn Abi Talib, yet claim to love and obey the Messenger. Had the Prophet [saw] only said Ali is your Mawla, many may have accepted the Prophet [saw] as their master, but not Ali ibn Abi Talib. Thus, the Prophet [saw] using this immediately makes clear that obeying him means also obeying Ali ibn Abi Talib.